As mentioned in several recent blogs, Princess Anne, daughter of HRH Queen Elizabeth II, and the Princess Royal's husband, Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence are in the Washington DC area as you read this blog today. They arrived a few days ago and officiated at several events.
One of these was the officially opening of a 10 week display of a very rare document. Dating back to 1215 and one of only 4 known to exist, this copy of the Magana Carta is being presented to the American people in the display to help celebrate and remember the important milestone of democracy of 800 years earlier when 40 barons advocated to their King John of England for the right to be ruled by law, and no longer by the decisions of the reigning monarch. An ititial agreement was soon voided and the country went to war over the matter, with the people being finally guaranteed these rights.
That display is at the Library of Congress.
The Royal Princess, husband and others also travelled a few miles away to the famous Arlington National Cemetery shown in the above map. At the tomb of the Unknown soldiers, first erected for the 1921 soldier of France, unveiled by dignitaries which included those from England,Canada and around the world, the Princess and others watched the changing of the guard at the tomb. This is located in the area depicted by the letter "A" on the map above, and as seen in the air photo also above.
Shown here is one of the guards on his patrol in front of the Tomb of several unknown soldiers dating back to the first from the Great War. The Princess is shown about to place the wreath at the base of the tombs.
At Arlington's Visitor's Center, indicated on the above map with a "B", the Princess unveiled the plaque for the Americans who were awarded the Victoria Cross for their bravery during the Great War. The first of course being the Unknown Soldier who died in France. Then the plaque lists the names of the other four recipients. While each was American born, one moved to Canada as a child, one came a few years into his teens, and the other two came to Canada to participate in the war effort before the United States joined that effort. (on the map I have also indicated where the dreadfull attack occured at the Pentagon... at item "C above.")
Tens of thousands of Americans came to Canada to join are war efforts in both world wars,and some actually went on to earn the US's highest medal for bravery, the Medal of Honor. Those being so awarded, first entered the war with Canada and later returned to US services before earning their MOH's.
The Princess and others are standing before a long display case which probably held the plaque for the 5 VC men. It is unknown where or when this plaque will be mounted at Arlington. The image to the right of course is the very plaque noted numerous times in this space in the weeks past.
It has apparently yet to be mentioned in any Canadian press that I can find yet. A shame if ever their was one as this American unveiling is very much also a Canadian story of heroism. And the reason you need to keep coming back to this space to learn about these heroes.
First listed on the plaque, and below the Unknow Soldier is Illinois born Bellenden Hutcheson who came to Canada at the start of the war to gain wartime surgical experience and went overseas with the 75th Expeditionary Force, later renamed the Toronto Scottish. (I have proud and fond memories of serving with this unit for many years in the 1960's and 70's.)
Captain Hutcheson earned his VC for actions in 1918 near the Drocourt-Quent Support Line in France. Sergeant George Mullin, born at Portland Oregon moved to Saskatchewan at the age of 2 and served with the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, earning his VC for bravery in the famous battle at Passchendaele Belgium in 1917. The third hero listed is Minnesota born Sergeant Raphael Zengel who also moved to Saskatchewan as a youth and would later serve with the North Saskatchewan Regiment and earned his Victoria Cross near Warvillers France in 1918. And finally listed is Lance Corporal; William Metcalf, Maine born and who served with the Canadian Scottish Regiment and was awarded his VC for actions in 1918 for actions at Arras France. His bravery took place on the same day as did Hutcheson's.
Princess Anne and party will be coming to Canada to celebrate our national memorial services at Ottawa on the 11th of November. The Royal Princess will be performing many duties in her two day visit and one of these, just confirmed, is that she will also be unveiling the Canadian VC plaque from Britain. As noted in the past in this space, it lists some 70 names of VC recipients and of the 11 countires being awarded these plaques, it has the most men listed.
Perhaps the Canadian media might bring us a story on this in the days to come!
On a final note, I must thank my good friend, researcher, historian, author and huge supporter of this blog, Tony from Halifax. He has sent me an incredible song going viral on the net and called the "Hometown Battlefield" and I plead with each one of you to take five minutes and listen to it..and then pass it along to others.
It is at... http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F9eOfVGz9vw
Please listen, and I will be back next Sunday with more news...
There is yet more news further to last week's update on both the Alonzo Cushing story and the Victoria Cross plaque coming to Arlington National Cemetery in DC. And November 6th will go down in history on both fronts.
Several stories of late in this space have told up events moving closer and closer to the actual awarding of the Medal of Honor to this 22 year old war hero. He was killed at the very front of the Union line and whilst receiving the brunt of Major General George Pickett's charge back in July of 1863. Many Canadians fought and died in this battle, and those of the days previous.
!3,000 Confederates marched...and then charged the North's line of some 150 canons, supporting infantry and artillery. Most would be killed, wounded, taken prisoner or scattered by the time the rest reached within a few hundred feet of the Union lines. Young Lt Alonzo Cushing was in charge of 6 small cannons, but by the time the brave Confederates still on their feet got to within about 100 feet, Alonzo's 6 guns had been reduced to just one with him and a few men doing their utmost to keep it firing. While the Union eventually repulsed the attackers, Alonzo was shot right through his mouth and the bullet passed out the back of his head. He lay dying for a few minutes but was then gone.
While had had shown much bravery in previous battles, and received several brevet promotions, it appears he was not ever recommended, or successfully, for the Medal of Honor. The very day of his death, he lay dying of the ground and received his final brevet to Lieutenant Colonel... but little seems to be available to indicate back in CW days that he was ever recommended for the MOH.
Many years later... in the 1980's the cause was taken up and carried forth decade after decade. This continued until a few weeks back when the President agreed to make the award. Then came the unsuccessful searches for relatives to receive it, and then finally the army came forth to indicate it will accept on behalf of the family.
But there are still further developments. Several distant cousins have been located and the latest news tells that on November the 6th the President will meet with these folks and plenty of other dignitaries in the Roosevelt Room at the Whitehouse to conduct a ceremony and finally... after 151 years, will present the Medal of Honor to the cousins.
This picture of Alonzo Cushing was while he was still a cadet at the US Military College, West Point, NY back in 1961.
Finally after so many years, Alonzo becomes the 1,522nd MOH recipient for bravery during the Civil War. (If of course you do not include the 900 plus that were illegaly rescinded in about 1917, and of which much has been said in this space in the past.)
Now onto another matter... four other American heroes... well perhaps British... or even Canadian...
And it also is taking place on November 6th.
Recent blogs have brought you bits and pices of the story regarding the British Government's paving stone project of last year. After local comunities complained that often the local hero was buried elsewere, government came up with a solution.
A plan was hatched, a contest held and a "Paving Sone" design chosen that could be mounted locally to honour the hero. But the plans were lacking as they did not consider those in other than British regiments, nor those buried outside of England. Others complained that all Victoria Cross recipients should be honoured, and not limiting this to just bthose from WW1.
After the dust settled and all this sorted out, they found that VC recipients also came from 11 other countries. Then a plan was developed to make a plaque listing all from each country and sending it off to these countries to have it mounted and properly unveiled with lots of appropriate pomp and ceremony. One of these is now in the US and another is probably already also in Canada.
Days ago it was revealed that the US plaque, to be unveiled at Arlington National Cemetery was to take place on 6 November. And days ago the release came out to say that the Princess Royal, Anne and her husband, a serving Admiral, will be in DC on several items of business and will be unveiling the plaque at Arlington.
My last blog showed images of these two plaques. The US one lists the Unknown Soldier of WW1 first. This monument was unveiled in November of 1921. The year previous the US had presented a Medal of Honor to the Unknown Soldier of Britain. At the 1921 ceremony at Arlington, dignitaries attended from around the world. A British Admiral arrived to present the Victoria Cross to the soldier. Numerous other countries did the same with their own highest of bravery awards.
Canada's Prime Minister Robert Borden also attended and took along two aides... John Young and George Richardson. Both were Victoria Cross recipeints. Young's VC was earned on the very day that George Mullin and Bellenden Hutcheson earned their VC's. These men are two of the four names on the very plaque being unveiled by the Royal family on the 6th. And at age 89 at the time, George Richardson was the oldest living VC recipient of the day.
It should be noted that the four named men being honoured all came to Canada during WW1 to enlist with the CF forces as the US had yet to join the war effort. Each then went of to war with Canadian troops, as did thousands of other US men and women, and the four, whilst so serving, earned their VC's.
While it has not yet been released, it is anticipated that while in Canada after leaving the US, the Princess Royal will be in Ottawa for Remembrance services and may well be revealing the Canadian VC plaque for England as well. With some 70 names on it, it is the largest of all the 11 made by Britain.
Till next Sunday...
Over the past few months I have been bringing updates about Alonzo Cushing, The cavalry Lietenant who gave his life commanding one of the few cannons still operating during the famous Pickett's charge of July 1863. Many blogs have brought either his story or the latest developments in a decades long quest to see him being awarded the Medal of Honor. Recently the President has indicated that the medal would be awarded, but a delay was caused with trying to sort out who would get the medal. Since no descendants were known, The US Army came forth to indicate it would accept the medal, but no decisions were made on where they would put it on public display.
Well, that's probably all out the window now as a relative has been located at Fredonia New York and presumable a ceremony will be set in which the medal will finally come home to the Cushing man. Since the medal was earned some 151 years ago, this award is no doubt the longest delay on record.
Alonzo Cushing, pictured above, was only 22 years old when he was killed in the charge that was eventually repulsed by the Union forces, and no doubt played a major roll in the battle at Gettysburg being won by the Union. Many Canadians fought and died in that battle. Had the overall battle gone otherwise, Washington DC being only less than 100 miles away, the nation of today may well have been called the CONFEDERATE States of America.
Switching topics, It has been oft mentioned in this space that the British Government is involved currently, in a recently started five year campaign to honour all of the Victoria Cross recipients of WW1. This will involve the unveiling of plaques across Britain. Each is to be unveiled by local governments on the very day that is the 100th anniversary of the day the deed was performed by the hero. Whilst not part of the original plan, it later evolved into one that resulted in the creation of 11 further plaques. Each of these would be sent off to one of the 11 other countries these men came from and on each would be engraved the man or men from that country being honoured.
One of these is to be unveiled in the United States at it's most famous Arlington National Cemetery at Washington DC. A few days ago it was revealed that HRH Queen Victoria's daughter, Princess Anne is coming to the DC area to conduct several official duties. One of these will be officiating at the unveiling on the VC plaque at Arlington on October 6th. The press release issues several days ago unfortuinately made no note of an important fact. Each of the four Americans being honored had come to Canada before the US entered the Great War and signed up with Canadian Forces and were so employed on the very day each performed their acts of bravery that resulted in later receiving their Victoria Crosses.
The DC plaque contains the names of the 4 men and also honours the Unknown Soldier of the Great War. He was killed in action in France and was repatriated back to the US and honoured with the creation of the Unkown Soldier's tomb of 1921. This important monumnet has of course been expanded over the years to honour several unknown soldiers of other wars.
The names at the left are of Captain Bellenden Hutcheson of the 75th Overseas battalion, later the Toronto Scottish, Sergeant George Mullin of the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, Sergeant Raphael Zengel from what is now the South Saskatchewan Regiment and Lance Corporal William Metcalf of the Canadian Scottish Regiment.
Each of these units and the Canadian Embassy and possibly the cemetery itself first learned of this plaque coming to the US by this blog many weeks ago. The four regiments and the Canadian Embassy at DC were further first advised that the ceremeny was to take place on the 6th by this blog, and today, further adised today of the attendance of Royalty at this event.
Princess Anne and her husband will be trvelling to Ottawa in the days following the US trip and may well be unveiling the Plaque for Canada, seen above and at right, at this time. Of the 11 countries getting one of these plaques, it has the most names engraved... about 70 heroes in all.
Back on Sunday,
Several mentions have been made in this space about Lt Alonzo Cushing. This Civil War Union Lieutenant was killed at the age of 22 while manning his canon during the famous Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg in July of 1863. While Cushing had no known connection to Canada, several Canadians died in that charge and in the 2 days before in overall Gettsyburg fighting. Of the 50,000 or more Canadians who fought in the CW, parhaps as many as 700 fought at Gettysburg.
The recent news is that for several decades a movement has been afoot to have Cushing awarded the Medal of Honor and The President has recently announced that an award would be made. But the trouble was that since there were no known ligitimate claimants that could come forth...who shoud the medal go to? Days back the net carried a few storries saying that progress is being made and that the US Army will be accepting the medal on Cushing's behalf. A further delay is that before a ceremony takes place, decisions need to be made where the medal will go. Some feel it ought to go to his home area of Delafield Pennsylvania but time will tell.
In bringing this story forth the press has said a number of times that the reason Cushing did not get the medal back in Civil War days was because at that time no medals were awarded to any of the soldiers AFTER they died, ie... posthumously.. But this of course is nonsence except to those who refuse to do any research.. such as some in the media.
There were no less than 32 MOH's awarded posthumously for Civil War actions. Two of these came to the families of John P McVeanne of Toronto Ontario and Denis Buckley of Lindsay Ontario during the days the CW was still being fought. And in both cases the man was the ONLY man in his regiment of perhaps a thousand or more soldiers, that was awarded a Medal of Honor, be they alive or deceased.
The delay in the Cushing award may well be connected to the possible fact that there were no nominations for Cushing to get the medal in the war..or for over 140 years after. His generals of the day had no problem promoted him to the brevet rank of Lt. Colonel on the very day of his death, and recommended that a fellow soldier in who's arms he died in, being promoted to a Lt in the regular US Army. The officers could have chosen to recommend the MOH for both men at the time but all the research I have done seems to show no such recomendation being made. His comrade, at his death was awarded the MOH in the 1990's however.
Nothing above is to suggest however that Cushing is or was not deserving of the medal, simply that the rules of the day were not followed, and the US President thus did not make these awards 150 years ago.
Moving on, a most interesting story appeared on the net a few days ago. But now it is gone. Most curious!!!
It announced that a heroic soldier of Vietnam days had received an interesting letter. It was from Washington DC and announced that he was to call a certain number to make some arrangements. Apparently he too was being awarded the MOH.
But when he called the number he found it out of service. The article says the whole thing was a mistake and that, after making other calls the whole mess was sorted out. It seems the medal was destined for another of the same name. The article also added that all was not lost. He was apparently now being awarded with another medal and also the Purple Heart. Too bad they sent him this incredible blunder and as insulting, why they instead decided that they would take the opportunity to award him two other medals so many years after the fact.
There are probably not a lot of times that over 300 Victoria Cross recipients gathered in one place at the same time. But it happened back in 1957 and on June 26th. There was lots of fanfare at London's Hyde Park and so their should have been. The military were on parade in their finest uniforms and anyone who was anyone was also there to see the sea of Victoria Cross recipients march past as HRH Queen Elizabeth ll and Prince Phillip took the salute.
The occasion was the 100th anniversary of the very day that HRH Queen Victoria presented the first ever Victoria Crosses on the chests of just over 60 men. Other were entitled but duties in far away lands prevented their travel to England. But by order of the Queen very special ceremonies were held around the world in all places the recipients were then serving. One such ceremony took place in Canada and was written about in this space. And back at London, among those 60 and a few more stood the proud cavalryman Lt Alexander Dunn, born at Toronto, and the only officer taking part in the historic Charge of the Light Brigade that would later be awarded the VC.
But moving forward to 1957, at Hyde Park the 300 and more again gathered and did their finest march past once again for royalty. There were more than 2 dozen Canadian recipients on that parade and thank goodness for photographers, an image of the 24 that could make the photo opt, had appeared in this space a number of times. I bring it to you again today. As you read the names below, you will hopefully recall having read stories of many of these Canadians also in this space in the past.
Here is that keepsake historical picture..with the recipients names also included....
More work still needs to be done on his life after the military and as that is done I will update this most interesting story.
Back on Sunday.
Due to the Thanksgiving holiday, the Sunday blog will be posted on Tuesday of next week,
enjoy the holiday
It was long before I got the autographs of over 40 famous famous persons in my little collection. I was in Toronto on it's famous Young Street with a zillion other kids and their parents and it was over 50 years ago. The man has escaped from the Hollywood screen, and was riding up Young in an army jeep and we had all gathered to see him in person. And when he arrived my brother and I took turns waving and shooting at him and he shot back..sort of. His name was Marion Mitchell (Robert) Morrison ... but we just knew him as the Duke. ..with the stage name of course of John Wayne. I didn't get his autograph but I sure got the great keapsake memory of being shot by him, in our own little make believe scene.
Years later I would get another chance meet with another "Wayne" of sort. I was a policeman and on crowd control at an intersection where he was about to do a commercial for one of the big gas companies. The crowds had yet to arrive and he was in his dresser trailer when I sent in a note that I had a warrant for his arrest and that if he could come out I would be most appreciative. I was stunned when he did, sat in the back and thus locking himself in the cruiser. I then asked most sheepishly for his autograph. I thought I'd soon be unemployed by this stupid stunt but he thought it quite cute and obliged. Of course, by that time he was one half of the comedy team, that was the sole act to appear on the internationally known Ed Sullivan show more times than any other act. But he used his adopted name.. Johnny Wayne and his partner of course was Frank Shuster ..bother of the writer and creator of another kind of hero. You might recall him. His name was Superman.
Years later I would learn that my mother, who served in the Canadian Womens Army Corps in WW ll, was involved very early in the war in recruiting, prior to going overseas. . As part of her duties she and a handful of others made a short recruiting film, that was used across North America. And the two university kids from Toronto who did the movie score were two guys named John Wayne and Frank Shuster. The same fellows!
Both men actually joined the Canadian Forces and went off to war and found themselves travelling widely as part of the entertainment of troops both in the war and later in the Korean theatre. At left the two were serving and shown in a skit at one of these shows for the troops. At right they are at Toronto in the early 60's doing another skit involving them having to arrest a fellow named Ed Sullivan. They'd appeared more times on the Sullivan show than any other entertainer... ever.
Over the years I have obtained autographs from Canadian astronaut Robert Bondar, Canadian acting legend Leslie Nielson and comedian Charlie Farguharson (Don Harron of CBC TV fame, and others.
I bring these tidbits to you today while the internet brought you similar stories a few weeks back. The occasion then was the 2014 annual convention of the Congressional Medal of Honor Society at Knoxville Tennessee. And there, no doubt attended were several thousands hoping to get glimpses of Medal of Honor recipients. Hundreds would gave gone through the MOH society's clearances as I did a year earlier to actually meet, speak with and gather autographs from many.
At the above left, retired Colonel Jack Jacobs signs materials presented by a member of the public. Jack was a Lieutenant in Vietnam back in 1968 when his company CO was wounded and he had to assume command. The troops had to move back and en-route he had to go into enemy territory several times to rescue the wounded while himself getting repeatedly wounded and even partially and temporarily blinded during these actions. He was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his heroism, the saving of dozens of lives and dispersing of many of his enemy at the same time.
The image to the right is from a year earlier and shows several of over 500 in 2014 who waited their turn, as did I, to have our group, one of I believe five, to get a turn and entering the room and meeting these heroes. Several in the photo carry the latest book at the time on the heroes that was being sold at the event. The MOH recipient would turn to the page telling his story and sign it for the proud owner. Note also the green dots each attendee is wearing. These are to identify the group of guests he or she belongs to. Each is only allowed a limited time then asked to leave the room to make way for the next group to enter. Last year I was given a blue dot, which I still have as a keepsake.
Many of the MOH men have been quoted telling that it is their duty to appear at these events and others to tell the stories...not of their heroism, which most very much down play, or the glorifying of wars and the hell it involved. They feel it their duty to continue to tell the stories of their fellow men and women who served and continue to serve. And of those that gave their lives during the battle for which the recipient received his award, and yet others that died, and also of those who went missing, were wounded or permanently disabled in those battles and the ones before and after.
These MOH men are often old men. Men in the their 80's and 90's. Men very unstable of the ground and in physical discomfort of one form or another but men who still feel it a duty to be at these events. And we as readers of these blogs and net stories that benefit from the freedoms these men gave us have our own duty to stand in front of them, to salute each and every one of them, to listen intently and then to thank them for their services.
A very moving account on WHY they give autographs is highlighted in the Colonel Jacobs interview at.. http://www.wbir.com/story/news/local/medal-of-honor/2014/09/12/medal-of-honor-autographs/15537029/
Please take the time to visit this site.
Technician Fifth Grade Robert F Maxwell earned his Medal of Honor for bravery in France in WW ll and is shown giving an autograph at left, above. At center is Fist Lieutenant Brian M Thaker, a Vietnam recipient from 1969 giving an autograph, At the right is Staff Sergeant Salvatore Giunta, a recipient from action in Afghanistan in 2007. These three images were taken at the convention at Gettysburg last year, a part of which I was honoured to participate in and bring you many a blog on. Note at bottom right corner of third picture there is a stack of cards that each recipient has with his image and a brief story. Most are autographed and handed out at events such as this convention.
Here are two of the autograph cards I received last year. Note the army Medal of Honor image on the top card and the navy image of the MOH on the lower one signifying the branch of service the recipient was in.
Here are two more of these cards. Three of the four are on the men pictured above.
More next week, See you then.
Pssst... Looking for a guru to be inspired by? Then follow this American Admiral's advice and study a Canadian born hero.
The Americans have erected plaques and monuments across the country to this fellow. They have a major headquarters named after him. They have issued a commemorative coin bearing his image. And a Stamp. They have even named major military vessels in his honor. Service awards and Naval League awards honour him. There is at least one statue commemorating his heroism. And there are lots more reminders. His very grave site has been declared a state historic site. Americans are indeed proud of him.
As we in Canada should also be! He was born in Vancouver BC and you have read about him often in this space. And there will be more on him I trust.
His name of course is Douglas Munro, and a month shy of his 23rd birthday, he gave his life for his adopted country of the US. It was at Point Cruz Guadalcanal in WW ll that he gave his life to help save the marines. One of the battalions of the US 7th Marines had been pinned down on three fronts and were being driven back into the sea when their commander raced to the water's edge to signal a US Ship to fire support shelling to allow them to withdraw. It was then that Douglas, a first class Signalman in the US Coast Guard, came back into action. He had led several "Higgins" workboats onto the landing not long before to land the marines. Now he had to backtrack several times to rescue the 500 men.
The very commander of the Marine unit was none other than "Chesty" Puller, a Lt. Colonel at the time. Thanks to Munro and his team, the commander lived to fight another day, and eventually attained the rank of Lt General. He would become one of the highest medalled heroes of the US Marine Corp.
Munro's men got all the marines off, but at the very end he had to place his vessel between the enemy and one last boat that got hung up in a sand dune of sorts. As it finally was pulled free and escaped he took a shot and was instantly killed. Today, and for many a year every recruit in the US Marines and also the US Coast Guard have been, and I suspect will continue to be required to learn the story of this Canadian born hero.
This is an image of Douglas probably not long before he was killed. He was later posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his bravery.
His final actions on September 27 1942 at Guadalcanal are depicted in the above USCG commissioned painting.
That action and his date of death were 72 years ago yesterday!
At the left there is a statue of Douglas Munro in Florida at the Coast Guard's training center were there is also a study hall named after Douglas.
Each year at his grave site in Washington state, at Cape May and elsewhere, ceremonies are conducted in honor of this hero. Yesterday at Cape May, one of the students played Taps at one such ceremony that marked the remembrance of his tragic death 72 year's ago. It is ironic that in the formal service Taps was played. In an earlier blog I had mentioned that when interviewing Douglas' late sister a few years ago she had talked about Douglas being a self taught trumpet player. And he too, often played Taps. He would go to the very cemetery that he now rests at in Cle Elum Washington State, to practice his songs... including Taps. He would say at the time that it was the least he could do for the fallen men and women buried there at the Laurel Hills Cemetery. Above at right, three wreaths are being laid at the foot of the statute.
The Marine Corp honour guard fires a salute to Douglas at one of the annual ceremonies at left. The image at right is a memorial to Douglas that is mounted at the Point Cruz Yacht Club at Guadalcanal.
The top man at the United States Coast Guard is Admiral Paul Zukunft and he obviously has incredible respect for Douglas Munro.
The Admiral has been quoted saying that... "Signalman First Class Douglas Munro epitomized our guiding principles of service to nation, duty to people and commitment for excellence seven decades before we put them down to paper." He would add that... "His selfless and decisive action under fire, gallantry and extraordinary heroism honoured the Coast Guard and saved many Marine Corps brothers in arms. Every Coast Guard man and woman and anyone seeking a profile in inspirational leadership and excellence should study Douglas Munro."
It is sad to say that unfortunately all too many Canadians have never heard of this Canadian.
Please share this and many other stories from this site and extend my invitation for them to visit the site as it is the only place in Canada, and probably the US as well, where they will find much of what appears in this space.
See you next week.